A general-purpose programming language created as an extension of the C language. Mostly used for system development (like Windows, Linux, etc.), embedded software, game development, etc. Many apps and programs we use (applications, browsers, databases, etc.) are written in C++ because of its performance and efficient resource management. Gives developers fine-grained control over hardware resources and helps produce resource-optimal software.
A general-purpose programming language most operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS, Android, iOS, etc.) are written on. Because it provides little abstraction over CPU instructions, C code could be almost 100% efficient in terms of resource use.
A style language (not a programming language) that describes the styling of a web page in a web browser. Think “content look and feel.”
A markup language (not a programming language) used for describing a structure of a web page in a web browser. Think “static web content.”
A general-purpose compiled programming language used for web development, mobile app development, and other software. A common choice for enterprise applications. Runs on any hardware that has JVM (Java Virtual Machine) installed.
A general-purpose programming language mostly used for web programming. The native language of a web browser. Think “dynamic (changing) web content.”
A general-purpose programming language that runs on JVM and is Java compatible but more concise than Java. Used almost exclusively for Android app development.
A general-purpose programming language that was created to (yet again) improve the C language. Used for macOS and iOS development.
A general-purpose programming language that was common for early web development. It was sometimes referred to as “the duct tape of internet.” Because of its wide use of special characters, Perl is considered “ugly,” although it can boast powerful features for text processing.
A general-purpose programming language created for web development aimed to be simpler and friendlier than Perl.
A general-purpose programming language used in web development, data science, and DevOps, loved by developers because of its readability.
A general-purpose programming language that was created with programmer productivity in mind. Think “Python but fun.” Its packages — the way programmers share code — are called Gems. Gained popularity thanks to the web framework Ruby on Rails. Ruby is used mostly for web development and console applications.
A domain-specific programming language that’s used for describing queries to relational databases.
A general-purpose programming language heavily supported by Apple. The tech giant adopted it for iOS application development.